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Reported speech

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REPORTED SPEECH (MOWA ZALEŻNA)

1. REPORTED STATEMENTS.

DIRECT: REPORTED:
‘He is French.’ He said (that) he was French.
‘We’re having fun.’ They said (that) they were having fun.
‘They arrived on Tuesday.’ I told her (that) they had arrived on Tuesday.
‘I’ve found my purse.’ She said (that) she have found her purse.
‘We’ll leave on Sunday.’ They told me (that) they would leave on
Sunday.
‘I can’t wait.’ She told us (that) she couldn’t wait.

TENSE CHANGES OTHER CHANGES
PRESENT CONTINOUS → PAST CONTINOUS TODAY → THAT DAY
PRESENT SIMPLE → PAST SIMPLE TONIGT → THAT NIGHT
PAST SIMPLE → PAST PERFECT TOMORROW → THE NEXT DAY
PRESENT PERFECT → PAST PERFECT YESTERDAY → THE DAY BEFORE
CAN/WILL/MAY → COULD/WOULD/MIGHT AGO → BEFORE
LAST WEEK → THE WEEK BEFORE
NEXT WEEK → THE FOLLOWING
WEEK
THIS/THAT → THE
THIS MORNING → THAT MORNING
HERE → THERE
ZASADY:
• Czasownik wprowadzający występuje w czasie przeszłym, np.: said lub told.
• Spójnik that można pominąć.
• Po tell zawsze występuje rzeczownik lub zaimek osobowy, np.: He told her... lub He told Susie... .
Stosując say, musisz użyć to, jeśli chcesz wskazać do kogo zwraca się mówiący, np.: He said to
Susie that... .
• Jeśli czasownik wprowadzający występuje w czasie teraźniejszym, np.: say(s), tell(s) lub doesn’t/don’t say, w zdaniu podrzędnym nie następuje zmiana czasów np.: She says that she is hungry.

2. REPORTED QUESTIONS.

WH-QUESTIONS
DIRECT: REPORTED:
‘What’s your telephone number?’ He asked her what her telephone number was.
‘Where do you work?’ He asked her where she worked.
‘When did you arrive?’ He asked her when she had arrived.
‘Where have you left your bags?’ He asked her where she had left her bags.

YES/NO QUESTIONS
DIRECT: REPORTED:
‘Do you like your job?’ He asked her if she liked her job.
‘Did you go to Sue’s party?’ He asked her if she had gone to Sue’s party.
‘Will you speak to Sam?’ He asked her if she would speak to Sam.
‘Can I get you a drink?’ He asked her if he could get her a drink.
‘Have you bought a ticket?’ He asked her if she had bought a ticket.

ZASADY:
 Zmiany czasów w pytaniach są takie same jak w zdaniach twierdzących.
 W pytaniach typu Wh- stosujemy pytajnik Wh- + podmiot + formę oznajmującą czasownika.
W pytaniach typu yes/no stosujemy if + podmiot + formę oznajmującą czasownika.
3. REPORTED REQUEST AND COMMANDS.

POSITIVE:
DIRECT: REPORTED:
‘Please help me.’ She wanted me to help her.
‘Please give me a lift.’ She asked me to give her a lift.
‘Drive carefully. She told me to drive carefully.
NEGATIVE:
DIRECT: REPORTED:
‘Don’t leave.’ He didn’t want me to leave.
‘Please don’t tell anyone.’ He asked me not to tell anyone.
‘Don’t go too fast.’ He told me not to go too fast.

ZASADY:
 Chcąc przekazać informacje o prośbie lub poleceniu, stosujemy czasownik tell, ask lub want, po nich dopełnienie, a dalej bezokolicznik z to.

4. VERBS OF REPORTING.
 Oprócz say, tell czy ask możemy używać wiele innych czasowników. Oto niektóre z nich:

VERB + OJECT + INFINITIVE. VERB + THAT + CLAUSE.
advise remind say explain
ask tell I explained that I wasn’t feeling well.
persuade warn
He advised me to leave at once. VERB + ING FORM.
He warned me not to stay. suggest
He suggested meeting at the rink.
VERB + TWO OBJECTS.
introduce VERB + PREPOSITION + ING FORM.
offer apologise
She introduced her husband to me. He apologised for being rude.
He offered me a cofee.
VERB + OBJECT
VERB + INFINITIVE. accept
agree refuse refuse
promise I accepted the invitation.
They agreed to come.

Załączniki:
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Czas czytania: 3 minuty

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