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Reported speech

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REPORTED SPEECH (MOWA ZALEŻNA)

1. REPORTED STATEMENTS

DIRECT:REPORTED:
‘He is French.’He said (that) he was French.
‘We’re having fun.’They said (that) they were having fun.
‘They arrived on Tuesday.’I told her (that) they had arrived on Tuesday.
‘I’ve found my purse.’She said (that) she have found her purse.
‘We’ll leave on Sunday.’They told me (that) they would leave on Sunday.
‘I can’t wait.’She told us (that) she couldn’t wait.

TENSE CHANGESOTHER CHANGES
PRESENT CONTINOUS → PAST CONTINOUSTODAY → THAT DAY
PRESENT SIMPLE → PAST SIMPLETONIGT → THAT NIGHT
PAST SIMPLE → PAST PERFECTTOMORROW → THE NEXT DAY
PRESENT PERFECT → PAST PERFECTYESTERDAY → THE DAY BEFORE
CAN/WILL/MAY → COULD/WOULD/MIGHTAGO → BEFORE
LAST WEEK → THE WEEK BEFORE
NEXT WEEK → THE FOLLOWING WEEK
THIS/THAT → THE
THIS MORNING → THAT MORNING
HERE → THERE


ZASADY
- Czasownik wprowadzający występuje w czasie przeszłym, np.: said lub told.
- Spójnik that można pominąć.
- Po tell zawsze występuje rzeczownik lub zaimek osobowy, np.: He told her... lub He told Susie... .
Stosując say, musisz użyć to, jeśli chcesz wskazać do kogo zwraca się mówiący, np.: He said to Susie that...
- Jeśli czasownik wprowadzający występuje w czasie teraźniejszym, np.: say(s), tell(s) lub doesn’t/don’t say, w zdaniu podrzędnym nie następuje zmiana czasów np.: She says that she is hungry.

2. REPORTED QUESTIONS


WH-QUESTIONS

DIRECT:REPORTED:
‘What’s your telephone number?’He asked her what her telephone number was.
‘Where do you work?’He asked her where she worked.
‘When did you arrive?’He asked her when she had arrived.
‘Where have you left your bags?’He asked her where she had left her bags.


YES/NO QUESTIONS

DIRECT:REPORTED:
‘Do you like your job?’He asked her if she liked her job.
‘Did you go to Sue’s party?’He asked her if she had gone to Sue’s party.
‘Will you speak to Sam?’He asked her if she would speak to Sam.
‘Can I get you a drink?’He asked her if he could get her a drink.
‘Have you bought a ticket?’He asked her if she had bought a ticket.


ZASADY
- Zmiany czasów w pytaniach są takie same jak w zdaniach twierdzących.
- W pytaniach typu Wh- stosujemy pytajnik Wh- + podmiot + formę oznajmującą czasownika.
- W pytaniach typu yes/no stosujemy if + podmiot + formę oznajmującą czasownika.

3. REPORTED REQUEST AND COMMANDS


POSITIVE:

DIRECT:REPORTED:
‘Please help me.’She wanted me to help her.
‘Please give me a lift.’She asked me to give her a lift.
‘Drive carefully.She told me to drive carefully.


NEGATIVE

DIRECT:REPORTED:
‘Don’t leave.’He didn’t want me to leave.
‘Please don’t tell anyone.’He asked me not to tell anyone.
‘Don’t go too fast.’He told me not to go too fast.


ZASADY
Chcąc przekazać informacje o prośbie lub poleceniu, stosujemy czasownik tell, ask lub want, po nich dopełnienie, a dalej bezokolicznik z to.

4. VERBS OF REPORTING


Oprócz say, tell czy ask możemy używać wiele innych czasowników. Oto niektóre z nich:

VERB + OJECT + INFINITIVE.
advise remind
ask tell
persuade warn

He advised me to leave at once.
He warned me not to stay.

VERB + TWO OBJECTS.
introduce
offer

She introduced her husband to me.
He offered me a cofee.

VERB + INFINITIVE.
agree refuse
promise

They agreed to come.

VERB + THAT + CLAUSE.
say explain
I explained that I wasn’t feeling well.

VERB + ING FORM.
suggest
He suggested meeting at the rink.

VERB + PREPOSITION + ING FORM
apologise
He apologised for being rude

VERB + OBJECT
accept
refuse

I accepted the invitation.

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