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Useful phrases and clues for the writing paper FCE, CAE, CPE

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ESSAY
clear introduction, outline the situation as it is / had been recently. Rhetorical question to lead into the main body.
Clear paragraphs, each covering a particular point in your argument or aspect of the subject.
Identify whether the task demands balanced or one-sided approach. If one-sided mention the alternatives briefly in the conclusion.
Support your ideas with brief examples.
Use connectors to link your sentences and ideas.
Conclusion should 'echo' the introductory paragraph.

ARTICLE

Notice what kind of article you have to write (for a newspaper / magazine / etc.) and who your readers will be then choose correct register and layout, keep it consistent throughout the article.
Use descriptive verbs, adjectives and adverbs to make events more interesting, use rhetorical questions to enhance reader's interest..
Introduction should have impact on readers.
Use direct speech only where appropriate
Conclude article forcefully and leave readers with sth to think about.

FORMAL LETTER

Think about the purpose of your letter and who your readers will be. Letter to a newspaper will aim to give and opinion and make a point about some matter, a letter of complaint will give details about an event or situation that has not lived up to your expectations.
Refer to the situation or event in an unemotional, reasonable way. Make sure you support your arguments or point of view.
Organise the letter carefully, (1 ? your reason for writing, 2 ? detailing your concerns or views, 3 ? supply further information, 4 ? concluding remarks / suggestions / requests.
Only include details which are strictly relevant.

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Dear Sirs,

I am writing with reference to the article on... published in one of your latest issues.
I have just read an article published in...
I am writing to express my disappointment with the content of the article, concerning..., published in...
I have read the article commenting on the debt problem of developing countries and would like now to share my views with other readers.
I wish to protest about the article which makes totally false claims.

I hope you will not take amiss what I am going to say.

To begin with...
Furthermore...
Moreover...
What we also need to consider is...
A good example of this would be...
This is due to / This can be attributed to...
There's another factor as well...
Apart from this / that...

I am looking forward to seeing my letter published in one of the next issues of your newspaper.

LETTER OF COMPLAINT
I am writing to complain about...

To add insult to injury...
Moreover...
What is more...
Not only ... but also ...

I must insist on a full refund plus compensation or I will have no choice but to take further legal action.
Please investigate the above matter as a matter of urgency and...
I am very unhappy about this. I would like you to arrange a full refund to me. I would appreciate a reply within fourteen days from today.
I hope you will settle the matter amicably.
I hope this matter will receive your immediate attention.

REPORT/PROPOSAL

Be clear about the purpose of your report / proposal. Report usually involves an account of sth which has happened and the presentation and interpretation of information deriving from this. Proposal is mostly devoted to making recommendations for a future project or course of action.
Organise it carefully, use headings for each sections, group your ideas clearly and logically. In proposal the most important section is 'Recommendations' in the middle.
If writing a proposal think about who will be the person to read it and choose appropriate register and style. If it's a report use impersonal style and register.
Only include details which are strictly relevant.

To, From, Subject, Date

The purpose/intention/aim of this report is to outline / present / discuss / give a brief comment / suggest / sum up the last...
The report contains the relevant details concerning the problem as you required.
It's based on my observations/extracts from the questionaries / the feedback from participants...
As requested I am submitting this report concerning...
This report is submitted in support of our request for...

I suggest ... as it would result in...
Consideration should be given...
It would be prudent / inadvisable / advisable to ... on the grounds that it / owing to the fact that / due to the fact that...
I am opposed to the idea of...
It would be mutually advantageous
I suggest that the problem of... can be addressed through...
Therefore...
For the satisfaction of... the ... should be...
Another problem was that...
I would strongly recommend...
More steps also need to be taken to...

The obvious conclusion to be drawn from these facts is that...
I hope / believe / trust you will consider this proposal favourably / the proposal will be given due consideration / the proposal will receive a due consideration.

REVIEW

Know what you have to write about and who you are writing for.
Have the appropriate vocabulary to describe a film or a book.
Know what tone (light / persuasive / friendly) to adopt. Use descriptive adjectives, verbs and adverbs to make it more interesting.
Write an introduction which will make an immediate impact on your readers.
Conclude your review with a reflective comment which reinforces your purpose of writing.
Include the reported views of people you have spoken to (if appropriate).
Include both positive and negative points.
If two or more separate reviews are required, write equal amounts on each.
Give a brief summary of the plot and remember to state the title of what you are reviewing.

The story is fast-moving and will have you in the edge of your seat throughout.
An impressive team of animators has produced techniques that are absolutely first-class.
And above all, it's an extremely funny film.
Although sth of a disappointment in relation to previous... this film has an unusal plot and gives reasonable value on special effects.
Set in time and place the film tells the story / recounts events in...
I found the plot rather conventional / predictable / contrived / completely bizarre / absurd...
The novelist has succeeded in creating an extremely intricate / complex plot / entirely believeable / life-like characters.
I would strongly advise you not to miss / waste money on 'title'.
I would definitely recommend seeing/visiting/having a look at 'title'.
For those who enjoy contemporary music, Tropical String Quartet are not to be missed.
Go and see 'title'. You'll be amazed.

LEAFLET

Eye catching title.
Chose the right register and be informative.
Use headings for clarity and use short paragraphs or sections.
Use bullet points to present important information.
Use visual layout, columns.
Rhetorical questions and a friendly, informative ending.

If you read this leaflet, you will...

CHARACTER REFFETENCE

Identify the relation with the person.
Elaborate on positive qualifications at work and experience.
Mention social skills.
Give a balanced picture, include weaknesses qualified to give positive impression overall.
Conlcude by recommending for work.

Tho whoever it may concern
Bob Nowacki

For all the reasons, I believe Bob Nowacki would have much to contribute and I have no hestitation in supporting his application wholeheartedly.

INFORMAL LETTER
Thanks so much for your letter. It was really great to hear from you.
Sorry not to have written / been in touch for so long / such a long time.
Thought I'd better / drop you a line / write to let you know...

Do you remember.... you mentioned in your last letter?
You said in your letter...
Last time you wrote you asked...

Before I forget...
I hope you don't mind me saying this but...
You will never guess...
I know this sounds silly but...

Thanks very much for inviting me to your party. I'm really looking forward to it.
I was really excited when I got your invitation, Unfortunately... so I won't be able to make it / it doesn't look as if I'm going to make it.


LETTER OF APPLICATION
I am writing to apply for the position...
I am writing with regard to your advert in...

As outlined in my curriculum vitae, which I enclosed, I am...
I do feel that I would be an ideal candidate for the position...
I am very hard working and enjoy the pressure of working to strict deadlines.
I am really attracted to the job you offer...
I feel I have the necessary qualities for this job.

I would be pleased to meet you for an interview, for which I am available at any time.
Please do not hestitate to contact me if you require any further information.
I thank you for considering my application and would appreciate a reply at your earliest convenience.


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